As noted in point 3.2.1 above, an adjustment of the underlying tariff on vehicles in Australia has been made. DIT conducted an internal assessment of tariff inputs prior to modeling. On a commercial basis, tariffs on motor vehicles faced by British exporters are therefore extracted from the GTAP 9 database (23%) adapted. 5%. The main findings are presented in Table 16. The United Kingdom worked closely with Australia to transform these agreements into agreements between the United Kingdom and Australia to ensure continuity after the end of the transition period. Work rules can be used to ensure that partners do not reduce their standards in order to gain a competitive advantage in trade. These provisions in trade agreements have become increasingly common over the past two decades[footnote 140] however, there is only limited literature on their impact on the results of the work (for example. B on wages).
[Note 141] While the effects have been noted, they have generally been positive[note 142] and provisions have been adopted to facilitate access to the labour market, reduce the gender pay gap, and not divert or reduce trade flows. [Note 143] A transnational empirical analysis of the impact of labour rules is difficult for several reasons: 21 respondents in companies consider customs procedures to be considered a priority in a free trade agreement with Australia. Most of the comments focused on minimizing regulatory effort by calling for improved overall speed of custom handling services and to keep red tape to a minimum. Proposals included the use of the integrated freight system or another electronic/online system. Several respondents called for a reduction in customs requirements, for example. B limited to the certificate of origin, especially for food. The parties also referred to the WTO Agreement on Trade Facilitation, which provides for effective cooperation between customs and other relevant authorities on trade facilitation and tariff compliance. The recommendation was to build on this agreement by standardizing approaches to customs legislation to ensure the safety of traders. One of the concerns expressed by some Australian wine producers has been the impact of possible queues and delays at UK borders and ports following the UK`s exit from the EU, given that the UK is currently the Central European hub for the flow of Australian wine exports across Europe.